Fakaofo lies 9' 38'S and 171' 25'W, and is the southernmost atoll of Tokelau. It consists of 62 islets measuring 4sq kms and its lagoon is 50sq km.
According to the 2006 Census, Fakaofo has a population of 483 with 29% being between 10 -19 years of age.
There are two settlements on Fakaofo. Fale the main settlement is towards the western side of the atoll, housing the majority of the population. Two kilometres to the west of Fale is the relatively larger Fenuafala where a second settlement was established in 1960 to relieve the growing population. Fenuafala is now also home to the Fakaofo hospital, Tialeniu School as well as Teletok, Tokelau's telecommunications provider.
Fakaofo has three churches to cater for its two practising religions, Catholic and Protestants. Of its total population 70% are Protestants and 22% are Catholics.
The Taupulega is the governing body on Fakaofo and it is made up of invited toeainas - elders.
On the atoll of Nukunonu, there are two main settlements: Fale (Village) and Motuhaga. These two settlements are joined together by a "concrete Bridge."
Beautifully situated on the southern-western edge of the lagoon, the landscape of Fale (Village) settlement is uniquely structured. Each house is built on a "Square" land plot where four stoned-roads surround each house. There are three main roads in the village settlement namely: Ala Gatai (Lagoon Road): Ala Loto (Middle Road): and Ala Tua (Ocean Road). Motuhaga is a recent settlement where the "St Joseph" hospital is located.
According to the 2006 census 426 people live on Nukunonu; 242 men and 184 women. For the de jure usually resident population of Nukunonu there are 132 males for every 100 females. This compared with the 2001 census of 361 people on Nukunonu; 194 men and 167 women.
Atafu is composed of 42 islands and lies in lat. 8° 33’ 30" S and long. 172° 30’W. Atafu is the smallest atoll in the group extending three miles north and south and 2.5 miles east and west, and having a land area of 550 acres. The highest land of Atafu is 15 feet above sea level. The present population is around 400.
Atafu was the ancient name given to the atoll by its earliest inhabitants, and these people were forced to abandon the island and some were killed during the era of warring period between the Islands of Tokelau.
On June 21, 1765, Byron discovered Atafu and discovered no sign of inhabitants.
Tonuia (from Fakaofo) and his wife Lagimaina (from Nukunonu) along with their seven children established Atafu. The Fale Fitu, or Seven Houses signifies Atafu because of their ancestral origin. The Presbyterian Church is the only church in Atafu since its introduction by Faivalua in 1858.